For applications of to problems involving sums of squares of integers see §27.13(iv), and for extensions see Estermann (1959), Serre (1973, pp. 106–109), Koblitz (1993, pp. 176–177), and McKean and Moll (1999, pp. 142–143).
For the terminology and notation see McKean and Moll (1999, pp. 48–53).
The space of complex tori (that is, the set of complex numbers in which two of these numbers and are regarded as equivalent if there exist integers such that ) is mapped into the projective space via the identification . Thus theta functions “uniformize” the complex torus. This ability to uniformize multiply-connected spaces (manifolds), or multi-sheeted functions of a complex variable (Riemann (1899), Rauch and Lebowitz (1973), Siegel (1988)) has led to applications in string theory (Green et al. (1988a, b), Krichever and Novikov (1989)), and also in statistical mechanics (Baxter (1982)).