# §1.13 Differential Equations

## §1.13(i) Existence of Solutions

A domain in the complex plane is simply-connected if it has no “holes”; more precisely, if its complement in the extended plane $\mathbb{C}\cup\{\infty\}$ is connected.

The equation

 1.13.1 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}w}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{2}}+f(z)\frac{\mathrm{d}w}{\mathrm{d}z% }+g(z)w=0,$ ⓘ Symbols: $\frac{\mathrm{d}\NVar{f}}{\mathrm{d}\NVar{x}}$: derivative of $f$ with respect to $x$, $z$: variable and $w(z)$: solution Referenced by: §1.13(iv), §1.13(iv), §1.13(iv), §1.13(iii), §1.13(v), §1.13(vi) Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E1 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(i), 1.13 and 1

where $z\in D$, a simply-connected domain, and $f(z)$, $g(z)$ are analytic in $D$, has an infinite number of analytic solutions in $D$. A solution becomes unique, for example, when $w$ and $\ifrac{\mathrm{d}w}{\mathrm{d}z}$ are prescribed at a point in $D$.

### Fundamental Pair

Two solutions $w_{1}(z)$ and $w_{2}(z)$ are called a fundamental pair if any other solution $w(z)$ is expressible as

 1.13.2 $w(z)=Aw_{1}(z)+Bw_{2}(z),$ ⓘ Symbols: $z$: variable, $w(z)$: solution, $A$: constant and $B$: constant Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E2 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(i), 1.13(i), 1.13 and 1

where $A$ and $B$ are constants. A fundamental pair can be obtained, for example, by taking any $z_{0}\in D$ and requiring that

 1.13.3 $\displaystyle w_{1}(z_{0})$ $\displaystyle=1,$ $\displaystyle w_{1}^{\prime}(z_{0})$ $\displaystyle=0,$ $\displaystyle w_{2}(z_{0})$ $\displaystyle=0,$ $\displaystyle w_{2}^{\prime}(z_{0})$ $\displaystyle=1.$ ⓘ Symbols: $z$: variable and $w(z)$: solution Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E3 Encodings: TeX, TeX, TeX, TeX, pMML, pMML, pMML, pMML, png, png, png, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(i), 1.13(i), 1.13 and 1

### Wronskian

The Wronskian of $w_{1}(z)$ and $w_{2}(z)$ is defined by

 1.13.4 $\mathscr{W}\left\{w_{1}(z),w_{2}(z)\right\}=w_{1}(z)w_{2}^{\prime}(z)-w_{2}(z)% w_{1}^{\prime}(z).$ ⓘ Defines: $\mathscr{W}$: Wronskian Symbols: $z$: variable and $w(z)$: solution Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E4 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(i), 1.13(i), 1.13 and 1

Then

 1.13.5 $\mathscr{W}\left\{w_{1}(z),w_{2}(z)\right\}=ce^{-\int f(z)\mathrm{d}z},$

where $c$ is independent of $z$. If $f(z)=0$, then the Wronskian is constant.

The following three statements are equivalent: $w_{1}(z)$ and $w_{2}(z)$ comprise a fundamental pair in $D$; $\mathscr{W}\left\{w_{1}(z),w_{2}(z)\right\}$ does not vanish in $D$; $w_{1}(z)$ and $w_{2}(z)$ are linearly independent, that is, the only constants $A$ and $B$ such that

 1.13.6 $Aw_{1}(z)+Bw_{2}(z)=0,$ $\forall z\in D$,

are $A=B=0$.

## §1.13(ii) Equations with a Parameter

Assume that in the equation

 1.13.7 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}w}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{2}}+f(u,z)\frac{\mathrm{d}w}{\mathrm{d% }z}+g(u,z)w=0,$ ⓘ Symbols: $\frac{\mathrm{d}\NVar{f}}{\mathrm{d}\NVar{x}}$: derivative of $f$ with respect to $x$ and $z$: variable Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E7 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(ii), 1.13 and 1

$u$ and $z$ belong to domains $U$ and $D$ respectively, the coefficients $f(u,z)$ and $g(u,z)$ are continuous functions of both variables, and for each fixed $u$ (fixed $z$) the two functions are analytic in $z$ (in $u$). Suppose also that at (a fixed) $z_{0}\in D$, $w$ and $\ifrac{\partial w}{\partial z}$ are analytic functions of $u$. Then at each $z\in D$, $w$, $\ifrac{\partial w}{\partial z}$ and $\ifrac{{\partial}^{2}w}{{\partial z}^{2}}$ are analytic functions of $u$.

## §1.13(iii) Inhomogeneous Equations

The inhomogeneous (or nonhomogeneous) equation

 1.13.8 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}w}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{2}}+f(z)\frac{\mathrm{d}w}{\mathrm{d}z% }+g(z)w=r(z)$ ⓘ Symbols: $\frac{\mathrm{d}\NVar{f}}{\mathrm{d}\NVar{x}}$: derivative of $f$ with respect to $x$, $z$: variable and $w(z)$: solution Referenced by: §1.13(iii), §1.13(iii) Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E8 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iii), 1.13 and 1

with $f(z)$, $g(z)$, and $r(z)$ analytic in $D$ has infinitely many analytic solutions in $D$. If $w_{0}(z)$ is any one solution, and $w_{1}(z)$, $w_{2}(z)$ are a fundamental pair of solutions of the corresponding homogeneous equation (1.13.1), then every solution of (1.13.8) can be expressed as

 1.13.9 $w(z)=w_{0}(z)+Aw_{1}(z)+Bw_{2}(z),$ ⓘ Symbols: $z$: variable, $w(z)$: solution, $B$: constant and $A$: constant Referenced by: §1.13(iii) Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E9 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iii), 1.13 and 1

where $A$ and $B$ are constants.

### Variation of Parameters

With the notation of (1.13.8) and (1.13.9)

 1.13.10 $w_{0}(z)=w_{2}(z)\int\frac{w_{1}(z)r(z)}{\mathscr{W}\left\{w_{1}(z),w_{2}(z)% \right\}}\mathrm{d}z-w_{1}(z)\int\frac{w_{2}(z)r(z)}{\mathscr{W}\left\{w_{1}(z% ),w_{2}(z)\right\}}\mathrm{d}z.$ ⓘ Symbols: $\mathscr{W}$: Wronskian, $\mathrm{d}\NVar{x}$: differential of $x$, $\int$: integral, $z$: variable and $w(z)$: solution Referenced by: §1.13(iii) Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E10 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iii), 1.13(iii), 1.13 and 1

## §1.13(iv) Change of Variables

### Transformation of the Point at Infinity

The substitution $\xi=1/z$ in (1.13.1) gives

 1.13.11 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}W}{{\mathrm{d}\xi}^{2}}+F(\xi)\frac{\mathrm{d}W}{\mathrm% {d}\xi}+G(\xi)W=0,$

where

 1.13.12 $\displaystyle W(\xi)$ $\displaystyle=w\left(\frac{1}{\xi}\right),$ $\displaystyle F(\xi)$ $\displaystyle=\frac{2}{\xi}-\frac{1}{\xi^{2}}f\left(\frac{1}{\xi}\right),$ $\displaystyle G(\xi)$ $\displaystyle=\frac{1}{\xi^{4}}g\left(\frac{1}{\xi}\right).$ ⓘ Defines: $F(\xi)$ (locally) and $G(\xi)$ (locally) Symbols: $w(z)$: solution, $\xi$: change of variable and $W(z)$: change of variable Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E12 Encodings: TeX, TeX, TeX, pMML, pMML, pMML, png, png, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iv), 1.13(iv), 1.13 and 1

### Elimination of First Derivative by Change of Dependent Variable

The substitution

 1.13.13 $w(z)=W(z)\exp\left(-\tfrac{1}{2}\int f(z)\mathrm{d}z\right)$

in (1.13.1) gives

 1.13.14 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}W}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{2}}-H(z)W=0,$

where

 1.13.15 $H(z)=\tfrac{1}{4}f^{2}(z)+\tfrac{1}{2}f^{\prime}(z)-g(z).$ ⓘ Defines: $H(z)$ (locally) Symbols: $z$: variable Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E15 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iv), 1.13(iv), 1.13 and 1

### Elimination of First Derivative by Change of Independent Variable

In (1.13.1) substitute

 1.13.16 $\eta=\int\exp\left(-\int f(z)\mathrm{d}z\right)\mathrm{d}z.$ ⓘ Defines: $\eta$: change of variable (locally) Symbols: $\mathrm{d}\NVar{x}$: differential of $x$, $\exp\NVar{z}$: exponential function, $\int$: integral and $z$: variable Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E16 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iv), 1.13(iv), 1.13 and 1

Then

 1.13.17 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}w}{{\mathrm{d}\eta}^{2}}+g(z)\exp\left(2\int f(z)\mathrm% {d}z\right)w=0.$

### Liouville Transformation

Let $W(z)$ satisfy (1.13.14), $\zeta(z)$ be any thrice-differentiable function of $z$, and

 1.13.18 $U(z)=(\zeta^{\prime}(z))^{1/2}W(z).$ ⓘ Symbols: $z$: variable, $W(z)$: change of variable and $\zeta(z)$: thrice-differentiable function Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E18 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iv), 1.13(iv), 1.13 and 1

Then

 1.13.19 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}U}{{\mathrm{d}\zeta}^{2}}=\left(\dot{z}^{2}H(z)-\tfrac{1% }{2}\left\{z,\zeta\right\}\right)U.$

Here dots denote differentiations with respect to $\zeta$, and $\left\{z,\zeta\right\}$ is the Schwarzian derivative:

 1.13.20 $\left\{z,\zeta\right\}=-2\dot{z}^{\ifrac{1}{2}}\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}}{{% \mathrm{d}\zeta}^{2}}(\dot{z}^{-\ifrac{1}{2}})=\frac{\dddot{z}}{\dot{z}}-\frac% {3}{2}\left(\frac{\ddot{z}}{\dot{z}}\right)^{2}.$ ⓘ Defines: $\left\{\NVar{z},\NVar{\zeta}\right\}$: Schwarzian derivative Symbols: $\frac{\mathrm{d}\NVar{f}}{\mathrm{d}\NVar{x}}$: derivative of $f$ with respect to $x$, $z$: variable and $\zeta(z)$: thrice-differentiable function Permalink: http://dlmf.nist.gov/1.13.E20 Encodings: TeX, pMML, png See also: Annotations for 1.13(iv), 1.13(iv), 1.13 and 1

### Cayley’s Identity

For arbitrary $\xi$ and $\zeta$,

 1.13.21 $\displaystyle\left\{z,\zeta\right\}$ $\displaystyle=(\ifrac{\mathrm{d}\xi}{\mathrm{d}\zeta})^{2}\left\{z,\xi\right\}% +\left\{\xi,\zeta\right\}.$ 1.13.22 $\displaystyle\left\{z,\zeta\right\}$ $\displaystyle=-(\ifrac{\mathrm{d}z}{\mathrm{d}\zeta})^{2}\left\{\zeta,z\right\}.$

## §1.13(v) Products of Solutions

The product of any two solutions of (1.13.1) satisfies

 1.13.23 $\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{3}w}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{3}}+3f\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}w}{{% \mathrm{d}z}^{2}}+(2f^{2}+f^{\prime}+4g)\frac{\mathrm{d}w}{\mathrm{d}z}+(4fg+2% g^{\prime})w=0.$

If $U(z)$ and $V(z)$ are respectively solutions of

 1.13.24 $\displaystyle\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}U}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{2}}+IU$ $\displaystyle=0,$ $\displaystyle\frac{{\mathrm{d}}^{2}V}{{\mathrm{d}z}^{2}}+JV$ $\displaystyle=0,$

then $W=UV$ is a solution of

 1.13.25 $\frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}z}\left(\frac{W^{\prime\prime\prime}+2(I+J)W^{% \prime}+(I^{\prime}+J^{\prime})W}{I-J}\right)=-(I-J)W.$

For extensions of these results to linear homogeneous differential equations of arbitrary order see Spigler (1984).

## §1.13(vi) Singularities

For classification of singularities of (1.13.1) and expansions of solutions in the neighborhoods of singularities, see §2.7.

## §1.13(vii) Closed-Form Solutions

For an extensive collection of solutions of differential equations of the first, second, and higher orders see Kamke (1977).